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The most common animals on farms and farmsteads are called domestic animals. We also talk about livestock that has approximately the same meaning. Domestic animals include cows, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and other species such as goose and rabbit. All these animals are kept on the farm for a particular reason. The reason is that man can use them for producing eggs, milk and meat and in the case of horses, for riding. A great improvement in animal breeding has taken place during last few decades and is now considered normal practice. Large quantities of water, forage, corn and land are often required to produce each kg of meat. Limiting our meat consumption is therefore one of the best things we can do for the environment.
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests, excluding or strictly limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. Approximately 32.2 million hectares worldwide are now farmed organically.
Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM – www.ifoam.org), an international umbrella organization for organic organizations established in 1972. IFOAM defines the overarching goal of organic farming as follows:
"Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved." Vottunarstofan Tún is a member of IFOAM and supervises certification for organic cultivation and organic farming in Iceland.
As a result of its geographical isolation and strict import policy, Iceland has remained free of serious infectious diseases in animals. Importing of; raw meat (including salami and smoked ham), raw eggs and unpasteurized milk products is strictly prohibited.
23. March 2013 14:25